BIM (Balancing Immunity) : a new approach to holistic well-being.

Operation BIM product: Mechanisms of Balancing Immunity
“BIM product induces the activation of Th1 and Th17 cells, but not Th2 cells”
By Prof.Dr.Watchara Kasinrerk
Biomedical Technology Research Center, Chiang Mai University, Thailand

General information

Th1 and Th2 cells
Immune system is an important system for protection body from infections and destroying cancer cells. The immune system consists of a sophisticated array of cells that have developed to recognize and eradicate a wide variety of microorganisms and cancers. T lymphocytes are important players in this process. They can be stimulated by peptide antigen presented on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules expressed on antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Upon T cell stimulation, they secrete IL-2 and express surface IL-2 receptors. Binding of IL-2 to its receptors, through the autocrine mechanism, induces clonal expansion of T lymphocytes. The activated T lymphocytes are then subsequently differentiated to the effector cells for generating immune functions.  

T helper cells (also known as Th cells or CD4+ lymphocytes) are a sub-population of T lymphocytes that play an important role in establishing and maximizing the capabilities of the immune system. These cells have no cytotoxic or phagocytic activity. They cannot kill infected host cells or pathogens. T helper cells, however, are involved in activating and directing other immune cells to function. They are essential for induction of antibody production by B lymphocytes and determining B cell antibody class switching. The T helper cells also involve in the activation and growth of cytotoxic T cells (also known as Tc cells or CD8+ lymphocytes) for killing of virus infected and cancer cells. In addition, T helper cells can activate and maximize bactericidal activity of phagocytes such as macrophages, monocytes and granulocytes. It is this diversity in function and their role in influencing other cells that gives T helper cells their name.

T helper (Th) cells express the CD4 molecule and, after activation, can differentiate into at least two subsets, Th1 and Th2 cells (Fig. 1). The Th1 and Th2 cells have different function and produce different cytokines. Th1 cells are important for the eradication of intracellular pathogens, including bacteria, parasites, yeasts and viruses. The hallmark cytokines of Th1 cells is IFN- which can activate microbicidal activity as well as cytokine production in macrophages. This cytokines also involve in the activation of CD8+ lymphocytes and NK cells which play major role in destroying cancer cells. TNF-, a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine, was also demonstrated to be produced by the Th1 cells. The primary role of TNF- is participating in the regulation of immune cells. TNF is able to induce inflammation, to induce apoptotic cell death, and to inhibit tumorigenesis and viral replication. Dysregulation of TNF production has been implicated in a variety of human diseases, as well as cancer. Other cytokines, such as IL-2, tumor necrosis factor- (TNF- or lymphotoxin) and IL-10 have also demonstrated to be Th1 cytokines, but none defines this lineage as clearly. It is note that IL-2 is classically associated with Th1 cells, but this association may be misleading; IL-2 is produced by all helper T cells early in their activation. A Th1 response is often accompanied by the production of complement-fixing antibodies of the IgG2a isotype, as well as the activation of natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic CD8+ T cells expressing IFN- and perforin. Taken together, the activation and induction of Th1 cells is of important for generation of a powerful cell-mediated immunity. In contrast to the Th1 cells, Th2 cells produce different type of cytokines. After activation, Th2 cells secrete cytokines IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 and can activate mast cells and eosinophils. Depending on their secreted cytokines, the Th2 cells function mainly to mediate humoral immunity, eradicate helminths and other extracellular parasites. These cells also mediate allergic and atopic manifestations, which is in keeping with findings that Th2-derived cytokines can induce airway hyperreactivity as well as the production of IgE. Both Th1- and Th2-specific cytokines can promote growth or differentiation of their own respective T-cell subset, but additionally might inhibit the development of the opposing subset (Fig. 1). 

In conclusion, Th1 cells involve in mediate cellular immunity responsible for killing intracellular pathogens. The Th2 cells, in contrast, produce cytokines which are associated with the promotion of humoral immunity and of IgE and eosinophilic responses. In excess, Th2 responses will counteract the Th1 mediated microbicidal action. The optimal scenario would therefore seem to be that humans should produce a well balanced Th1 and Th2 response, suited to the immune challenge.

| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 |